Zbrush

Going to try do some 3d modeling on zbrush in the style of ancient greek sculpture, had zbrush for a while but havn’t used it yet so i’ll post the results up. I’m going to try and go for this kind of style:

Dada2data

The Dada movement was one I looked at when undertaking my dissertation, the similarities between dada and contemporary art practice is quite prevalent and one essay which helped me do my own research was Chris Josephs Dada2data essay:

Has the digital revolution transformed Dada into data? What features of Dada have become important elements in digital art and net culture? To answer these questions we must first take a brief look at the art movement known as Dada, and then examine several of its key features – simultaneous poetry, manifestos, abstract painting, collage/photomontage, chance, cabaret, audience, collaboration – and how they relate to new media.

Dada is best understood not as a single entity but as a collection of strands of literature and art that occurred in Zurich, and later Paris and Berlin, from approximately 1916 to 1924. It was born in the Cabaret Voltaire, an anarchic mix of poetry, music and performance that was founded in Zurich in 1916 by the German writer and musician Hugo Ball and his partner Emmy Hennings. The Cabaret quickly attracted a variety of artists to participate in the increasingly outrageous performances. The First World War caused a number of artists to emigrate/escape to neutral Switzerland, and the meeting of these writers, painters, sculptors and musicians initiated a feverish burst of experimental practices that crossed traditional boundaries of form and content, and protested the tools of western enlightenment – rationality and the belief in technological progress.

The exact origin of the name Dada is disputed (the best known story involves choosing a word at random from a dictionary – dada meaning ‘hobbyhorse’ in French), but it was first used as the title to a magazine published as a print extension of the Cabaret’s performances. For Hans Richter, a German painter who joined the Cabaret Voltaire in late 1916 and quickly became a part of the inner circle, “Dada had no unified formal characteristics”, but was characterized by a “destruction of all artistic forms … a raging anti, anti, anti … ” (Hans Richter, Dada Art and Anti-Art). It is often defined by a particular esprit de corps: it “was not a school of artists, but an alarm signal against declining values” (Hugo Ball, Flight Out of Time). However Richter does identify a number of genres and techniques peculiar to Dada, which have clear relationships to new media.

Simultaneous Poetry
The simultaneous or ‘tonal’ poem, as defined by Hugo Ball, was:

A contrapuntal recitative in which three or more voices speak, sing, whistle, etc., simultaneously in such a way that the resulting combinations account for the total effect of the work, elegiac, funny or bizarre.

An offshoot of the simultaneous poem was the “phonetic” or “abstract” poem, which used only non-semantic sound, as in Hugo Ball’s gadji beri bimba gandridi laula lonni cadori or Kurt Schwitters’ Ursonate. Phonetic poetry owed much to the work of the Expressionistic poet August Stramm, who was killed during WWI, and the ideas developed by the Russian Futurists. Richter admits that:

Like all newborn movements we were convinced that the world began anew in us; but in fact we had swallowed Futurism – bones, feathers and all. It is true that in the process of digestion all sorts of bones and feathers had been regurgitated.

These traditions of experimental poetry were later developed inlettrisme and sound poetries. In new media we can find works such as Jim Andrews’ Nio that feature exactly the ‘contrapuntal recitative’ that Ball described; 391.org regurgitates Hugo Ball’s classic phonetic poem Karawane and turns it into a perpetual simultaneous poem. More generally, simultaneity presented as coincident streams of audio/text/image has become a key technique in new media art.

Manifestos
Richter admits that the “aggressive, polemical” manifesto owes a great debt to Futurism, particularly in terms of experimentation with typography and layouts, but he distinguishes between the programmatic style of Futurist manifestos, and Dada’s resolutely anti-programmatic stance. Dadaists embraced contradiction and paradox as a method to shock, confuse and resist, and they were not concerned to make their proclamations internally or externally coherent.

Many new media manifestos continue this tradition in a direct translation from print to screen. Others incorporate dada techniques such as chance, or incorporate elements of audio, image and interactivity in an attempt to extend the life of what was commonly seen as an exhausted format, the self-proclamatory manifesto.

Abstract Painting
Abstraction was not the invention of Dada, but Richter claims it as a Dada revolution: ” everything must be pulled apart, not a screw left in its customary place, the screw-holes wrenched out of shape … the total negation of everything that had existed before”.

In new media, abstract painting – understood broadly as the abandonment of any reference to visible reality – has become just another option in the digital artists’ repertoire. Design software favours the creation of abstract work. It is more difficult to create a convincing digital simulacrum of reality than it is to create a reality that only exists digitally.

Collage / Photomontage
Dadaists used collage – assemblages of everyday materials like cardboard, wire, train tickets, and newspaper fragments, and photomontage (“cut up photographs, stuck … together in provocative ways”) in order “to confront a crazy world with its own image.”

These processes have been incorporated into the practices of new media creation; they have also been expanded by the use of time, in everything from simple slideshow transitions to interactive video montage.

Chance
The Dadaists used chance freely to restore the “primeval magic power” of art. Tristan Tzara created poetry by cutting out the words of newspapers, shuffling them in a bag and writing them down in the order they were pulled out; Hans Arp found that discarded scraps of paper falling on the floor could make unconscious patterns that were more interesting than ones that the artist consciously designed. For Richter, “this dissolution was the ultimate in everything that Dada represented, philosophically and morally … chance, not as an extension of the scope of art, but as a principle of dissolution and anarchy. In art, anti-art”.

In later years artists in a number of fields – including William Burroughs, John Cage and Gustav Metzger – developed the use of chance within their own work, but digital languages have taken this element and codified it. It is now possible to program random functions and to manipulate any element in unpredictable ways. Although this may not be ‘truly’ random, the effect has been to open up the use of chance in art to levels the Dadaists could not have imagined.

Cabaret
The Cabaret Voltaire eventually gave way to a more extensive variety of exhibitions – a combination of lectures, readings, ballets and paintings – that represent Hugo Ball’s development of theGesamtkunstwerk, or total work of art. Wagner originally conceived this notion in his essay The Art-work of the Future, where he argued that the future lay in a synthesis and unification of music, song, dance, poetry, visual arts and stagecraft, so that “the spectator transplants himself upon the stage, by means of all his visual and aural faculties”.

The transgressional nature of the Dada cabaret became a particularly potent and unwelcome mirror reflecting the absurdity of the war, and found its way into many later movements such as Situationism, Absurdism and Performance Art, as well as the rather forced controversies of contemporary British modern art.

Taken collectively, new media art, and the web more generally, could be seen as a huge multimedia cabaret. All the Dadaist techniques of (shock) performance and audience baiting have found a natural home in the millions of websites that represent a 24/7 digital performance for a worldwide audience. The unification of elements found in Wagner’s Gesamtkunstwerk is a basic tenet of new media creation: text, image and sound share a single digital form as zeros and ones, theoretically offering unlimited possibilities for transformation and synthesis.

Audience
The Dadaists wanted to shock audiences out of their collective complacency, but in their hands the audience became more than a passive receiver. Verbal insults and violence – commonplace in the early Dada performances – marked a turn back towards participatory audiences that has continued unabated to the present day, most obviously with ‘reality’ TV, but more pervasively in new media with developments in user interaction, Do It Yourself (DIY) publishing and networks. Online multiplayer games are a good example of a contemporary participatory audience: a mostly invisible ‘performance’ by the programmers and hardware to create an environment, which is actively performed by the audience in competition or cooperation with one another.

Collaboration

We must never forget that Dada was a group of people closely knit together, a bund, whose purposes were identical, and who had banded together their talents and energies to wage an excruciating war against society as a whole. That is why we find constant references, in the members’ own writings, to Dada as a collective being.(Michel Sanouillet, Dada: A Definition, in Dada Spectrum)

The spontaneous and open collaboration that resulted from the common physical experience of these geographically dislocated artists was a crucial ingredient of Dada’s success. Their close proximity exposed one another to a huge variety of working methods and ideas.

The internet allows collaboration beyond physical locality, and has the convenient ability to store and reference previous contributions (as used to great effect in open-source programming). However most online projects with multiple authors – for example wikis, corporate or scientific projects, and community websites – have particular pre-defined themes, and consequently there may be fewer of the unexpected developments that the Dadaists achieved through active experimentation and play. Participation, even in cross-media artistic collaboration, is time-delayed, and so may also lack the physical presence of multiple authors that helped the Dadaists create unexpected synergies in their work.

Dada2data
Whilst subsequent artistic movements largely absorbed the Dada experiments in form and technique, the possibilities that were suggested by the Dadaists have been greatly extended in new media. Interactivity, collaborative networks, self-publishing and the increasing ease of worldwide distribution have helped reverse traditional producer-consumer roles; the internet may help to change audiences into more self-conscious participant-creators.

The anti-establishment esprit de corps and the sense of play that loosely bound the Dadaists can be seen in the work of a number of artists using new media. However any politically motivated technological Dadaism must overcome the fact that its relevance and success depends on individual access to (primarily, the cost of) specific hardware and the internet.

Though there are exceptions, old media channels still offer a better chance of reaching the public consciousness: and these channels still prefer offline manifestations. Flash mobs are an interesting recent development that use the internet in a purely communicative fashion to create pseudo-spontaneous offline Dadaist performance, with Smart mobs (politically motivated flash mobs) representing the political agenda of the Dada cabaret.

Yet perhaps new media dadaists should be given credit for slipping under the (old) media radar, thereby offering the potential of critical distance from the traditional channels of production and distribution that are part of the status quo. It is here we find hackers – or better,hactivists - whose rage against the misuse of the digital machine is noticeably similar to the Dadaists’ response to the technological madness of WWI. The public view of hacking – unmotivated, anarchic, criminal – is a fair approximation of the initial response to Dada. There is even a nostalgic dada virus, dada 1356, which simply appends “da,da …” to infected files, but specific political (anti-establishment) motivations are better illustrated by the work of hackers to overcome government content filters, or to protest specific issues.

All the key modes of Dada discussed above can be found in new media art, and they have another simple yet important common element. Transformed by the digital revolution, Dada has become data: and so it could be that the most successful new Dada practitioners are those who understand data at its most basic level, the programmers.


Chris Joseph is a digital writer and artist, editor of the post-dada magazine 391.org and author of babel. He was recently nominated for the JavaArtist of the Year Award. This article owes a debt to Samantha Levin, Sylvia Egger and John Wirtz for their invaluable perspectives on contemporary dada.
www.babel.ca

Links

UbuWeb:
http://www.ubu.com

Russian Futurism:
http://cotati.sjsu.edu/spoetry/folder6/ng64.html

thing.net:
http://www.thing.net/~grist/l&d/lettrist/lettrist.htm

Sound poetry, Steve McCaffery and bp Nichol:
http://cotati.sjsu.edu/spoetry/ng6.html

Jim Andrews’ Nio:
http://www.vispo.com/nio

Karawanefliege:
http://www.391.org/33/

Neumerzmanifesto:
http://www.smalltime.com/neumerz/manifesto.html

Franko Busic’s Dada Is Alive:
http://www.391.org/manifestos/frankobusic_dadaisalive.htm

Natalie Bookchin and Alexei Shulgin’s Introduction to net.art (1994-1999):
http://www.easylife.org/netart

Iain Albarn’s Eden Manifesto:
http://www.391.org/manifestos/eden.htm

Dada2Mada remixes:
http://www.391.org/manifestos/dada2mada/index2.htm

babel’s Patinage:
http://www.babel.ca/patinage

Lewis LaCook’s site:
http://www.lewislacook.com

Animalamina:
http://www.animalamina.com

From Wagner to Virtual Reality:
http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr

0100101110101101.org:
http://0100101110101101.org

Jodi:
http://www.jodi.org

thehacktivist.com:
http://thehacktivist.com

viruslist:
http://www.viruslist.com/eng/viruslist.html?id=518

Kevin Mitnick:
http://www.landfield.com/isn/mail-archive/1998/Sep/0060.html

The Portuguese Kaotik Team:
http://www.landfield.com/isn/mail-archive/1998/Aug/0020.html

Bibliography

Ball, Hugo. “Flight Out of Time”. New York: The Viking Press. 1974 (1924).
http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/6786.html

“Dada Spectrum, The Dialectics of Revolt”. edited by Stephen Foster and Rudolf Kuenzli. University of Iowa. 1979.

Richter, Hans. “Dada Art and Anti-Art” New York: Oxford University Press. 1978.
http://www.thamesandhudson.com/books/Dada/0500200394.mxs/37/32/

Baroque and Glasgow

Found an interesting point about the Baroque period which has an odd connection to problems that have been present in Glasgow

Baroque that was primarily associated with the religious tensions within Western Christianity: division on Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. (http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/c17th-mid19th/baroque.htm)

In a previous post I discussed the idea of creating work surrounding Glasgow, I included a painting that I started dealing with the idea of sectarianism within the city, an idea which has been quite prevalent in the news over the past year and something I was interested in studying further. From the same website I found another good quote

Baroque that use revolutionary technique of dramatic, selective illumination of figures out of deep shadow – a hallmark of Baroque painting. Contrary to the traditional idealized interpretation of religious subjects, Baroque realistically presents models from the streets.

Here it discusses Baroques use of the average person in its art as opposed to famous or religious figures, this technique was adopted in the attempt to communicate religious themes in a direct and emotional involvement. I am going to further study this idea in depth as I think there could be some interesting connections between the religious differences in baroque society to the one present in Glasgow today.

Digital painting

Looking at the works of Bert Monroy has got me thinking about the inclusion of digital painting into my project. He creates work in Illustrator and Photoshop and has been creating work digitally since the 80′s. These works are more recent examples

I have also watched a documentary of his on lynda.com where he talks about how he creates his compositions and undertakes the painting process, quite informative for me as I did some of my own digital paintings and I now realise I made it alot more difficult for myself that I needed to. My own examples:

Theres no way I could compare my own examples to Bert Monroys in terms of quality, but I’ll include them here anyway as examples of things I have done. These examples were my first experiments into creating paintings on Photoshop, I quite enjoyed it as well so I think that this method of creation will be something to consider in the future.

I also like the idea of merging this digital renaissance idea in with digital painting, in a way re creating the ideas of older art movement into a contemporary digital context. I quite like this example

Online Identities

I uploaded a copy of a paper discussing identity within Second Life that has came back into my head from ready the body and identity section in Digital Art by Christiane Paul. One line that stand out for me is:

Online identity allows a simultaneous presence in various spaces and contexts, a constant ‘reproduction’ of the self without the body.

In our daily lives we play different characters depending on the situation we find ourselves in, for example the way we behave in work isn’t the same as if we were with our friends or at a family gathering. In essence we ‘play’ different roles according to the different restraints of the situation we find ourselves in, it’s not that we’re being different people but simply adopting different parts of our personality as a whole depending on what we’re doing.

With the development of the Internet along with social media and other community based websites and environments this idea is magnified with the ability to change and even conceal our identities.  Different websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Myspace, 4chan, Second Life etc. offer us a platform to display ourselves, our thoughts and opinions to a wider community; on each we can potentially behave differently which fits in with the above quote, a constant reproduction of ourselves in various spaces and contexts. For example, Tumblr allows users to create a url where someone could express views about something that they feel would be unacceptable on Facebook where people who know them can what they are writing. The ability to be anonymous or to change identity can be witnessed in contemporary net.art projects such as ones by 0100101110101101.org, Electronic Disturbance Theater and RTMark, but also dates back to artists like Marcel Duchamp, who famously created artworks using the pseudonym Rrose Selavy, his female alter ego.

Overall I think that a persons identity online could be seen a consisting of many personalities, the idea of ‘playing’ a role appears again depending on what website someone is using, who is using the website and how they are presenting themselves within it. A persons overall Internet identity becomes a form of digital multiple personalities that exist in several places at different times.

My idea of the Digital Renaissance

The term itself meaning ‘re-birth’ seems a fitting title for the artwork being created in the 21st century; the rise of digital technology has caused the world to go through major transformations, a whole new world when compared to say the 19th century or even the early 20th century. The speed of technological development at points seems to be an unconscious progression, new gadgets and devices are constantly streaming onto the market that we hardly have time to realise their importance before they are upgraded and considered old and dated. The world just now is going through a digital rebirth as we constantly rely on technologies functioning in order to keep everything running smoothly, to communicate and increasingly to buy and share with each other.

The Digital Renaissance however, unlike its predecessors, exists globally and not within a certain location. Like the old Renaissance painters developing perspective and other issues within painting sculpture etc. I see a comparison with the artists of the 21st century created a new ‘perspective’ of things with the use of digital technologies. It also continues to be a fluid and ever changing re birth of art into the digital era as a result of the rapid development of technology, meaning that there are no distinct characteristics as yet of what digital artworks look like.

It’s something I need to think about more but these are my initial thoughts on the Digital Renaissance

Hardware/Software

Just started reading New Media in the White Cube and Beyond, only read the introductory chapter but one question that has stood out for me when looking at the preservation of digital artworks is the question of the hardware and software that is used in the artwork (If the artwork uses digital technologies as the medium itself)

Seeing as technology is moving at such a rapid rate, how will that affect works that rely on a particular hardware format that is becoming obsolete, will the work die out and cease to exist when more modern hardware cannot accomodate for its content. Internet works as well that rely on software can fall under the same category, by looking at early works of net.art for example, that were created in the 90′s, they seem so basic now despite being created not that long ago, is it only a matter of time before they cannot be viewed anymore because the technology is so out of date.

The preservation of digital artworks hasn’t really crossed my mind before but hopefully this book has some good stuff in it

How technology changed art; photography and motion

Been reading an interesting book called Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture by Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright, which has got me thinking more about how technology has changed art. In this post I hope to expand some of the basic points I touched on in my first post about it, starting with photography and motion. One point I made:

Technologies such as photography and video provided artists with the ability to capture events and moments in time that would have otherwise have been depicted through painting or sculpture.

I still think this point is valid when discussing the development of photography and film in relation to the arts, however Sturken and Cartwright bring up some interesting points in relation to how these technologies rose to the level of popularity they have, taking them as a whole and not simply within an artistic field. When discussing the invention and influence of photography, the idea that these technologies have changed the way we view the world around us is briefly discussed, however the emphasise shifts onto society’s role in the development of these technologies. In this quote Sturken and Cartwright highlight the importance of technologies such as photography have had on society however try to make the reader question the influence of society on the development of photography:

It can be argued that technologies have some agency – that is, that they have important and influential effects on society but that they are also themselves the product of their particular societies and times and the ideologies that exist within them and within which they are used. (pg.184)

Society’s need for the introduction is also discussed, fields such as science and medicines need for documentation being examples, the emphasis focusing on the ‘need’ of society to possess these technologies as progression continues:

Photography emerged as a popular visual technology because it fit certain emerging social concepts and needs of the time – modern ideas about the individual in the context of growing urban centers, modern concepts of technological progress and mechanisation, modern concepts of time and spontaneity, the desire to contain nature and landscape in mechanically reproducible form, and the rise of bureaucratic institutions in the modern state interested in documentation and classification. (pg.185)

To take an early example of photography I have included a motion study created by Eadweard Muybridge:

This example is typical of Muybridge’s work, usualy depicting the nude figure in a range of different situation or performing various tasks. For these studies it could be argued that Muybridge was interested in the study of the human form in its natural state and could have merit within medical or scientific fields (The use of the body in these photographs could fit in well with my original research idea.) These works also bring up the idea of motion within photography or the idea of documenting a process. Sturken and Cartwright make reference to an experiment undertaken by Muybridge to investigate whether or not a horse, whilst running, will have all four legs off the ground at any given time, the experiment proving that the horse would for an instant be like this. The idea of documenting motion can be found not only in early photographs such as this, but also within paintings such as Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase no.2:

Following on from this the idea of the Zoetrope is discussed, an invention used by magicians and travelling performers that grouped a series of images together to give the impression of movement. These would consist of inner drums and a light source, each individual would look through a peephole to see the images moving in a rapid sequences in a circular motion, Muybridge’s horse images serve as a good example of this:

The development of the projector can be seen as a key event in the development of this technology, for these previous examples of motion within the Zoetropes were designed for the individual, this changed with introduction of the projector, allowing groups of people to view films presented on celluloid. I will research more into this as I haven’t done much reading on it and theres no point writing about it just now.

In relation to the creation of art I think a lot of this information has improved my understanding of how art objects developed to incorporate these technologies. The thing that stand out the most for me is the need to document motion, or to capture a moment in time that really couldn’t be expressed with mediums like painting. I think it’s relevant to include my second bullet point in my original post about technology and art:

Documentation of projects could be argued to be one of the fundamental elements of performance art and other works that involve real time aspects, without them would anyone have witnessed performances or developed an interest in this method of creating art. The documentation allowed viewer to witness the works by bringing them into the gallery environment regardless of where they were created.

Even though artistic groups like performance and video art where not present at this time, the development of photography and cinema is a crucial aspect to the working methods of these movements and beyond into the world of 21st century art. Again to sum up, for me the ability to document motion has been the fundamental element of how these technologies have changed the course of art practice. I’ll finish with this quote about the continuous development of these technologies

It is important to remember that each new form of visual technology builds on the code of previous technologies but that each constitutes as well a kind of epistemic shift.

Digital Renaissance

Messing about with portraits from the Renaissance within Photoshop, been reading alot about how these artists were trained with I will make posts about in the near future. This art movement has always had a particular attraction to me, I remember my mum taking me to an gallery when I was younger and seeing some of these works and other fresca paintings which to this day remain some of my favourites.

Exerts from Dissertation (aspects of appropriation.)

Taken small sections out the dissertation, not too sure if they will make sense individually but they discuss aspects of appropriation. The dissertation was called “Has the digital revolution transformed Dada into Data? An investigation into the works of Eva and Franco Mattes to explore net.arts relationship with Dada”.

Appropriation in relation to Dada

The use of appropriation adopted by many Dada’s have also left a profound influence on Eva and Franco and the Net.art movement, as well as many other artists and art movement throughtout the 20th and 21st centuries. In the previous example of Adolf the Superman (1931) we can see Heartfield’s use of borrowed images combining them to create a new image, something that is also seen in Hannah Höch’s (1889 – 1978) work Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany (1919) (Fig.2).

9“Assemblages of everyday materials like cardboard, wire, train tickets, and newspaper fragments” (Joseph, 2003) was a common feature in Dadaist work.

Fig.2

Sturken and Cartwright, (2009) state: “appropriation is traditionally defined as taking something for oneself without consent” (Sturken, Cartwright: 2009:pg83). This action of taking something for one’s own use, typically without the owner’s permission is an aspect that features heavily in the work of Eva and Franco, the use of appropriation within an artistic context is not a new thing; going back centuries artists have reused and reworked ideas previous to their generation and indeed from artists of their own, in order to create new works. Picher (2009) states: “The act of making art and visual culture began with appropriation; borrowing images, sounds, concepts from the surrounding world and reinterpreting them as art.” (Picher, 2009) Picher emphasises the idea that essentially nothing is original; everything has been adopted or “stolen” from another context. One artist who has caused a considerable amount of controversy in his time, and arguably one of the most important and influential artists of the 20th century, is Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1968). His famous series, the Readymades, created around the 1910’s, adopted characteristics of appropriation and changed the way in which artists created works, moving away from painting and traditional sculpture. Duchamp took everyday objects from around him and displayed them as art objects, the readymade as described by Beyn and Strange(2002) is “an everyday article which the artist declares to be an artwork and exhibits without major alterations” (Bell et al, 2002, pg.338) The works can be seen as “conceptual”, preceding the works created by the conceptual art movement of the 1960’s, and leaving a profound influence of contemporary artists and movements such as the Young British Artists and Net.art. Nicholson (2009) states in relation to the YBA’s: “The subject matter is varied but shows clearly the influence of Marcel Duchamp, in the prominence given to conceptual art, found objects and unconventional, even humorous interpretations of everyday life.” (Nicholson, 2009).

Fig.3

Duchamp’s most notable readymade, Fountain (1917) (Fig.3), is a good example of appropriation within an artistic context. Created for, and rejected by the American Society of Independent Artists, the work simply consisted of a white urinal placed on its back with the inscription R.Mutt 1917 on its side. Ades, Cox and Hopkins (1999), provide a contextual background to the piece. Taken from a statement by Duchamp about fountain he states: “The only works of art America has given are plumbing and her bridges.”(Ades, Cox, Hopkins: 1999:pg127) This quote gives us an insight into the thinking behind fountain. Duchamp saw the making of this piece as a tribute to American engineering, rather than depicting this in the form of a painting or a sculpture he has chosen to conceptually represent this with a piece of American engineering itself. Also the title fountain, gives connotations of a monument situated in a city or palace to commemorate something, here Duchamp has replaced the traditional fountain with a urinal, giving it monumental status. The authors of Marcel Duchamp (1999) describe this as a “disguised critique of an incipient nationalism and American cultural life.” (Ades, Cox,Hopkins:1999:pg129). Sturken and Cartwright also make reference to this cultural use of appropriation saying: “Cultural appropriation has been used quite effectively by artists seeking to make a statement that opposes the dominant ideology”, (Sturken, Cartwright: 2009:Pg.83)

This type of work has been carried out several times by Duchamp; by appropriating objects such as the urinal, along with bike wheels, stools and shovels, he gave them new meanings within a gallery setting. This rejection of the “existing definitions of art” ” (Tate / Glossary /Anti-art) refers back to Anti-art; challenging the traditional methods of art, namely paint and sculpture, which were being practiced by the majority of artists at that time. The influence of the readymades has manifested itself in the working methods of many artists up until the present day, highlighting them as some of the most important works of the 20th century.

 

 

Appropriation in relation to Net.art

Digital uses of appropriation, which feature heavily in the works of Net.art, are found under the section “Specific features of net.art” and states: “Collaboration without the consideration of appropriation of ideas” (Bookchin, Shulgin, 1999). Appropriative aspects present in Pop art,

25such as the use of cultural images are found in net artworks such as Vuk Cosic’s (b.1966) Net.art per se(CNN interactive) (1996)(Fig.11) where Cosic has copied the CNN website,

commemorating a meeting of artists and theorists in May 1996.

Fig.11

The CNN website, at this time, was one of the first news websites to adopt a 24 hour approach to the circulation of news. This ability to access news at any time for free on CNN, contributed to its importance within popular culture, which led the net.artists to create works that adopted “a serious engagement with popular media, a belief in parody and appropriation, skepticism towards commodified media information and a sense of interplay of art and life.” (Greene, 2004, pg.54), this interplay of art and life is also referred to in the manifesto as: “The utopian aim of closing the ever widening gap between art and everyday life” (Bookchin, Shulgin, 1999), ideas previously explored in Dada and Pop art. In this work, the use of appropriation has a profound Duchampion influence that comes in the form of a “digital readymade”, where Cosic has appropriated the CNN website in a similar fashion to Duchamp’s urinal. His influence on the net.art movement is reference by Greene in relation to Cosic: “Cosic announced that net artists where ‘Duchamp’s ideal children’.” (Greene, 2004, pg.97)

The use of photomontage and collage found in the examples of John Heartfield and Hannah Höch is also present in Mark Napier’s (b.1961) Shredder 1.0 (1998) and Harwood(b.1960)/Mongrel’s Uncomfortable Proximity (2000)(figures 12 and 13 respectively)

Fig.12 Fig.13

The Shredder( Fig.12) can compare to the collage works already seen in examples such as Hannah Höch and ‘Uncomfortable proximity’ are similar to John Heartfield. The shredder, that takes websites and deconstructs the code, produces abstract compositions that reflect on the collage work created by Dadaists such as Höch, and also features in the Hybrids works created by Eva and Franco which will be examined later. The Tate website explains Harwood’s appropriation of images from artists such as Turner and explains: “the images have been created in extreme close up, fed into a computer and then combined with other pictures from the faces and flesh of Harwood, his friends and family.” The type of working method has previously been seen in relation to John Heartfield’s image of Hitler, combining several images to create a new one.

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